Les impacts de la morphologie urbaine sur le vent : performance d'énergie éolienne à l'échelle de quartier

Abstract : This work concentrates on wind flow simulation by CFD techniques in different urban fabrics at the neighborhood scale (450m × 450m), in order to assess the impacts of urban morphology on wind energy potential. Facing local and global environmental problems, the development of renewable energy is becoming increasingly urgent and important. Our goal is to adapt the urban morphology in the development of urban wind energy. To do so, two fundamental questions are aroused: What are the impacts of urban morphology on the wind flow in the city? How to evaluate the urban wind power? We start with a summary of bibliography on three areas: urban wind energy, urban morphology and CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) simulation. The advantages and disadvantages of different urban wind turbines are discussed. Some new technologies and methods of architectural integration of small wind turbine are presented. Indicators of urban morphology are proposed. The methods of CFD simulation of wind flow around buildings are presented. To validate our model of air flow simulation, we start with a study of the numerical simulation parameters with the reference of a benchmark of wind tunnel experiments. Several methods of verification before and after the CFD simulation are presented. After validation of our model, we begin to simulate some simple forms. With one, two and three buildings, the impacts of different simple configurations parameters are analyzed. Considering the effectiveness and feasibility, wind energy assessment is mainly taken over the roofs of buildings. The combined effects of altitude and wind concentration above the roof, are evaluated. We then simulate more complex morphological models, by assessing the wind potential in six neighborhoods that are urban forms both worldwide typical and favorable for wind energy development. Morphological indicators that potentially affect the wind flow are proposed. Analysis of coherence are made between these indicators and the values of the coefficient of increase of wind speed and of the wind power indicator above the roof. Then, some prototypes of basic urban forms from real neighborhoods are studied. The influence of some modifications of these prototypes on the wind energy potential is analyzed, and the most favorable conditions for the exploitation of wind power prototypes are recommended. Then, wind energy in a real neighborhood in Beijing is evaluated. Local conditions (physical forms, climate, social-economic aspects) are considered to assess the feasibility of developing wind energy. The location and the choice of techniques suitable urban wind turbines are discussed. Finally, a mathematical method based on some simple morphological parameters is presented, in order to assess wind potential above the rooftops. The obstacle impact indicator of the buildings is defined. The coherence between the results of the simplified mathematical method and those of CFD simulation are analyzed.
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Biao Wang. Les impacts de la morphologie urbaine sur le vent : performance d'énergie éolienne à l'échelle de quartier. Energie électrique. INSA de Toulouse, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ISAT0004⟩. ⟨tel-01245149⟩

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