Caractérisation et optimisation du perçage orbital du Ti6Al4V et d'empilages CFRP / Ti6Al4V

Abstract : The study presented in this thesis deals with the orbital drilling of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and CFRP carbon fiber composite. This case study is taken from an industrial problem, from the Airbus company wishing to incorporate parts CFRP to reduce its mass. But the combination of these two materials with antagonistic properties poses many problems for drilling. This is why new alternatives to conventional drilling have been sought. Among these alternatives, orbital drilling with micro-lubrication showed interesting prospects. That is why it was chosen in this industrial application. But this process is still relatively unexplored and there is little feedback and many developments to achieve. Orbital drilling process is very different from the conventional axial bore. The bore is machined with a smaller diameter tool than the hole, which describes a helical path in the material. All work presented focus on the characterization for the optimization of the orbital drilling process. To achieve this, several aspects were discussed. First, a geometric modeling and kinematics of operation has been developed. The inclusion of the exact geometry of the tool and cutting conditions helped to define the geometry of the chip at every moment. This knowledge is important for understanding the achieved material removal mechanism, it allows to estimate the loading of the tool and the conditions in which machining is performed. From this first geometric modeling, modeling of cutting forces was established. For this, a model of mechanistic type of effort was used. Its application was adapted to orbital drilling in order to best represent the operation. The thus modeled efforts were compared to those observed experimentally in order to validate the proposed model. This allowed to consider the use of this model for a better understanding of this material removal process. The influence of model inputs, namely the cutting conditions and tool geometry was studied. Another contribution of this work is the characterization of the orbital drilling of CFRP stacks / Ti6Al4V. Indeed, many tests were developed to characterize the orbital drilling process. Experimental procedures have therefore been put in place. First of all, the instrumented test means had to be characterized so that it better corresponds to the means used by the manufacturer and above all it allows to carry out reliable and repeatable testing. The experimental design implemented subsequently helped to define the influence of cutting parameters on the efforts and realized diameters. In this phase of characterization, the bore in errors have also been studied. Thus, the trends have been observed. The results obtained in this work in the meeting helped to consider the process optimization of routes, through the control of advances, the drilling strategy, but also the geometry of the tool. Tracks have been proposed and are subject to further study. modeling implementation and the identification of phenomena occurring during the operation have also laid the foundation for process monitoring. This can be considered passively, to monitor the smooth running of the operation, but also actively to act in real time to the control of the process, based on identified phenomena, to ensure the desired quality.
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P. A. Rey. Caractérisation et optimisation du perçage orbital du Ti6Al4V et d'empilages CFRP / Ti6Al4V. Génie mécanique [physics.class-ph]. Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-02073256⟩

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